India’s Chandrayaan-3 lander Creates Incredible History: arrives in lunar orbit


India is set to embark on its second moon landing mission with Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft gearing up for a momentous landing attempt. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has announced that Chandrayaan-3 has successfully entered an elliptical lunar orbit, marking a significant step towards achieving its lunar goals. With this mission, India aims to become only the fourth country in the world to achieve a successful lunar landing, joining the ranks of the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China.



A Step-by-Step Journey to Lunar Success

1. Elliptical Lunar Orbit Entry

On a bright morning around 9:30 a.m. Eastern time, Chandrayaan-3 began a roughly 30-minute burn, propelling it into an elliptical lunar orbit. The spacecraft’s successful entry was confirmed by ISRO via social media, with a jubilant announcement acknowledging the presence of lunar gravity.

2. Fine-Tuning the Orbit

The next critical step is to gradually alter the spacecraft’s orbit by reducing apolune on August 6. This alteration will pave the way for Chandrayaan-3 to settle into a 100-kilometer-altitude, circular polar orbit on August 17.

3. Preparing for Landing

Once the desired orbit is achieved, the Vikram lander will separate from the mission’s propulsion module. It will then enter a 35 x 100-kilometer orbit, making the final preparations for the much-anticipated landing.

4. The Moment of Truth

The ultimate test of Chandrayaan-3’s capabilities will come on August 23 when it attempts its soft landing. The primary landing site, located at an unprecedented 69.37 degrees south latitude and 32.35 degrees east longitude, is situated in the vicinity of the lunar South Pole region. Notably, no previous moon mission has landed at such a low latitude.


Advancing India’s Lunar Exploration

5. India’s Quest for Lunar Landings

Chandrayaan-3 follows in the footsteps of India’s first lunar missions, Chandrayaan-1 and Chandrayaan-2. While Chandrayaan-1 launched in 2008 and successfully orbited the moon, its mission was concluded with a crash landing onto the lunar surface in 2009. Chandrayaan-2, launched in 2019, faced a challenging landing due to a software glitch but continued its mission with an orbiter that remains operational to this day.

6. Lessons Learned and Upgraded Software

Drawing from the experiences of Chandrayaan-2, ISRO has taken several lessons to heart and upgraded the software for Chandrayaan-3. The organization is confident that the new improvements will lead to a safe and successful landing on the lunar surface.

Chandrayaan-3’s Bold Mission Objectives

7. Demonstrating Safe Landing

The primary mission objective of Chandrayaan-3 is to showcase a safe landing on the lunar surface. This achievement would mark a moment of pride for India’s space exploration endeavors and cement its position among the elite countries capable of lunar landings.

8. Surface Operations and Science Experiments

Beyond the successful landing, Chandrayaan-3 aims to demonstrate surface operations through the Pragyan rover. The 26-kilogram rover will conduct in-situ science experiments during the duration of the lunar daylight, which lasts for approximately fourteen Earth days. These experiments will provide valuable insights into the moon’s geology and surface conditions.

9. Surviving the Lunar Night

The lunar surface experiences extremely cold temperatures during its nighttime, making survival challenging for spacecraft. Chandrayaan-3 will not be equipped with radioisotope heater units, meaning it will rely on its solar-powered systems to endure the harsh lunar nights.

A Global Collaborative Effort

10. Ground Station Support

European Space Tracking (ESTRACK) is actively supporting Chandrayaan-3 by providing essential ground station support for tracking the mission. ESTRACK’s expertise has previously assisted Chinese lunar missions, highlighting the spirit of international collaboration in space exploration.

Joining the Lunar Landing Elite

11. A Select Group of Nations

If Chandrayaan-3’s mission proves successful, India will join an exclusive group of nations capable of achieving a lunar landing. This achievement will be a testament to India’s technological prowess and dedication to exploring the cosmos.


India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission is poised to mark a significant milestone in the country’s space exploration journey. With its eyes set on achieving a safe and successful lunar landing, India is determined to join the ranks of the world’s leading space-faring nations. The mission’s goals of conducting surface operations and in-situ science experiments further showcase India’s commitment to advancing scientific knowledge about the moon. As we eagerly await the final descent and landing attempt, the world watches with bated breath to witness India’s ascent to lunar success.



1. Will Chandrayaan-3 be the first Indian mission to land on the moon?

No, Chandrayaan-3 is the second moon mission undertaken by India. The first was Chandrayaan-2, launched in 2019.

2. What is the main objective of Chandrayaan-3?

The primary mission objective of Chandrayaan-3 is to demonstrate a safe landing on the lunar surface.

3. What makes Chandrayaan-3’s landing site unique?

Chandrayaan-3’s landing site is located at a remarkably low latitude of 69.37 degrees south, making it the first moon mission to land in this region.

4. How long will the Pragyan rover conduct experiments on the moon’s surface?

The Pragyan rover will carry out its scientific experiments during the lunar daylight, which lasts for approximately fourteen Earth days.

5. What happened to Chandrayaan-2’s lander, Vikram?

Chandrayaan-2’s lander, Vikram, experienced a hard landing due to a software glitch during its landing attempt in 2019. However, the orbiter from the same mission continues to operate and collect scientific data.





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